Sunday, May 31, 2009

76.ACHARYA VINOBA BHAVE said about Guru

Acharya Vinoba Bhave said -“Sree Narayana Guru is considered as one of the five or ten avatars that have appeared in India during the last hundred years. I had an opportunity of meeting him on the year 1925 when I had been to Kerala for Vaikom Satyagraha. In those days he was residing at Varkala. There I had talked to him for an hour or two. My humble respects to the memory of this great sage.”

75.Dr.Zakir Hussain said about Guru

Dr.Zakir Hussain said: “Sree Narayana Guru who felt the presence of God in all the living beings of the universe is the philosopher of Adwaita-Vedanda of the 20th century. It is said that sanyasins by virtue of their indomitable spiritual fervour and power of meditation protect the world to sustain itself. Sree Narayana Guru has proved the above statement beyond suspicion. Viewing from the above perspectives, Sree Narayana Guru is none other than the true reflection of the term “divinity”. His sublime philosophy has enlightened the humanity beyond the frontiers of India. The message of Sree Narayana Guru is all the more important in the present world than anything else.”

74.Shri V.V.Giri said about Guru

V.V.Giri said: “ Among the galaxy of erudite saints who ennobled and enriched India’s cultural heritage, Sree Narayana Guru occupies a pride of place by sheer dint of his lofty ideals, unflinching loyalty to the canons of humanity, justice, truthfulness, “Bhakti” and his utter selflessness, transparent sincerity, humility, total renunciation of mundane desires and a commanding grip over spiritual knowledge. Sree Narayana Guru acquired a halo of his own and endeared himself to all strata of his devotees. Nothing gave him greater joy than to witness the amelioration of the deplorable plight of the “ have nots and the underdogs of human society. He was peerless in compassion for the poorer sections of the community. A purely materialistic existence divorced from the ethical and spiritual elevation of the individual is inimical to the development of a harmoniously balanced, integrated human society.The spiritual leaders like Sree Narayana Guru have made valiant efforts towards focusing the attention of our people on these vital facts of deriving spiritual solace and blissful joy.”

73.Smt.Indira Gandhi said about Guru

Smt. Indira Gandhi said: “Sree Narayana Guru, the great social reformer and philosopher who raised the clarion call, One caste,One religion, One God for man, is not an asset of Kerala alone but of the entire India.”

72.Deena Bandhu C.F.Andrews On Guru

Deena Bandhu C.F.Andrews said: I had a vision of God in human form, Sree Narayana Guru who was renowned in the southern-most part of India was that “supreme being”.”


Definition of dharma according to Guru
" Dharma eva param daivam dharma eva mahaadhanam
dharma ssarvatra vijayee bhavathu sreyase nrunaam" :

"dharma itself is the god, prosperity, victory and
it will definitely lead to great glory and fame.":

70.Sree Narayana Guru on Caste system

Sree Narayana Guru: …
1.Now the world should get freedom from the clutches of caste system and racial discrimination
2.Even god himself comes and say that due to the birth in lower caste one should not learn Vedas, we should not agree with that.
3.Is that human beings live for caste or for god or all these are for human beings.
4.If there are no human beings then what is the use of all these (caste, god, etc)
5.There is no caste, and thinking that the caste system exist itself is foolishness.
6. There is no use of caste system in the society. It curtails the freedom of individuals and also it kills the wisdom.
7. There are only minor differences among the human beings like the color of the skin, educational qualification, financial status, the taste for food, color of dress etc. Other than these there are no significant differences among human beings.
8. The caste system has created so many problems in Indian society. Even Sree Sankaracharya has committed mistakes while following the caste system
9. Sage Vyasa who wrote Bhagavath geetha and also Brahama sootra has told in different ways about caste system confusing the followers.
10. There is no group (vargam) called the dalits /adhakrutha / lower caste, etc. The only difference is (if at all) in the level of education, financial status, level of cleanliness etc

69.Vaikom Muhammad Bhasheer on Guru

Thus said Vaikom Muhammad Bhasheer:" During the last 500 years, India has not seen so eminent a jnaani or so great a social reformer as Sree Narayana Guru. Unfortunately we Indians have not known him well enough"

68.Ramana Maharshi on Guru

Thus said Ramana Maharshi : Sree Narayana Guru had not much to talk to me. For, he was the Mahatma of high intellectual supremacy.

67,Swami Chinmayananda on Guru

Thus said Swami Chinmayananda: can India rediscover her heart ? can religion, a philosopher of the Upanishads, help us in meeting the challenges of our nation? Can they rediscover our moral balance ? all these burning questions are answered in living life by the Sivagiri ashram. My humble and devoted prostrations to Sree Narayana Gurudeva….may his blessings be upon all of us, Gurudeva was the personification of love as Jesus Christ and lord Buddha.

66.Dr. S. Radhakrishnan on Guru

Thus said Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in 1967 . A great social reformer, a staunch promoter of Hindu Religion and a true philosopher Sree Narayana Guru was a revolutionary yogi of Kerala. Chopping of heads and creation of chaos and confusion are not the necessary ingredients of revolution. Any sincere effort to transform the image of civilized life is revolution.

65. SRI Sri. C. Rajagopalachari on GURU

Thus said Sri. C. Rajagopalachari in 1925: It is natural that Kerala expresses it gratitude for the great services rendered by Sree Narayana Guru in the cause of religion and education and social uplift of the handicapped communities of Kerala . I was deeply impressed by him when I had the privilege of paying my respect to him in his aasramam at Sivagiri Mutt .

64. Pandit. Jawaharlal Nehru about Guru

Pandit. Jawaharlal Nehru about Guru
" I feel very happy to have come to a place where a great man lived and gave his message to the people. Where great men lived that place becomes a holy ground something like a temple because of their thoughts and prayer that lie enshrined there. Sree Narayana Guru lived here and from here radiated his message; the message of no caste no division and he wanted to build up a casteless and classless society. His message is still very much needed in these days. In order to get a casteless, classless society, what are we to do ? Many things have to be done, but the general approach which I presume is Sree Narayana Guru's approach; the approach through the mind and heart and not of a compulsion and coercion. Where there is not this turning of the heart and mind, all other changes are likely to be superficial. I am most happy to have come this place to pay my tribute to this great man who lived here and spread his message from here"

63.Sree Narayana gurudevan - A sage with a difference

In history we come across a number of cases where seers, saints and great men tried to improve the conditions of mankind. They were either poisoned, crucified or killed. Socrates was poisoned to death. Joan of arc was set on fire. Jesus Christ was crucified. Muhmmed Nabi had to flee from Mmecca to Medeena. Alexander the Great who wanted to conquer the world through wars died on his way. Through his wars thousands died. Nepoleon who wanted to unite Europe once said: If I cannot unite Europe, there in future will only be a league of nations.” He was defeated in Waterloo and deported to St.Helena island where he was slowly poisoned to death. His dreams remained unfulfilled. Through the wars he waged, millions died. The Russian revolution and the Chinese revolution had to pay heavy casualties in terms of human lives.

Bloody revolutions immediately catch our attention. But remember that: “Peace has her victories no less renowned than war.” Here there is a Guru who during his sojourn on earth never uttered a single word against anybody and never created any enemy. He moved among the masses listening to their problems and giving them simple solutions. He stayed with them, dined with them and instilled in them with hope and courage. He advocated the downtrodden to stand on their feet. His words were commands and people simply obeyed. Such was the great faith the people were having in him. He never opposed anything but opposed silently and peacefully everything that stood in the way of progress. When lower castes were denied entry in temples he built temples for them. When education was denied to the Avarnas he built schools for them. He asked the rich to serve the poor. He never called for any slogan shouting, dharna, hartal and road blocking, but asked his people to work hard for progress. The result is the modern Kerala. He was a Jnana Guru in action. His actions were for the emancipation of human life-the soul, mind and body.

And thus he was a sage with a difference.

He was a sage on par with Buddha, Lao-Tzu and Socrates. He was a persuasive teacher like Jesus Christ and an upholder of social justice like the Prophet Mohammed. As a philosopher his deep wisdom surpasses the climaxes of Descartes and Spinoza and amends the conclusions of Kant, Hegel and Karl Marx.

About him Rabindranath Tagore has thus said:

“I have been touring different parts of the world. During these travels,

I have had the good fortune to come into contact with several saints and Maharshis. But I have frankly to admit that I have never come across one who is spiritually greater than Swami Narayana Guru of Malayalam-nay, a person who is on a par with him in spiritual attainment. I shall never forget that radiant face illumined by the self effulgent light of divine glory and those mystic eyes fixing there gaze on a far remote point in the distant horizon. ”

Romain Rolland, in ‘Prophets of New India’, has thus said:

“His doctrine was impregnated with the monist metaphysics of Sankara, but tended to PRACTICAL ACTION, showing very marked differences from Bengal mysticism, of which effusions of love (Bhakti) inspire in him a certain mistrust. He was, if one may say so, a Jnanin of Action, a grand religious intellectual who had a keen living sense of the people and their social needs. He has contributed greatly to the elevation of the oppressed classes in South India, and his work has been associated at certain times with that of Gandhiji.”

Mahatma Ganghiji has thus said:

“I deem it a great privilege in my life to have visited this beautiful Travancore State and met His Holiness Sree Narayana Guru Swamy. Her Highness the Maharani also spoke to me about the greatness of Guru Swamy.”

Dr.Sir C.P.Ramaswamy Iyer , the then Diwan of Kerala has thus said:

“Long before Mahatmaji’s Harijan uplift started, it was the great Sree Narayana Guru who instilled the Slogan of Universal Brotherhood into the hearts of the masses. Sree Narayana, was indeed a Daiva Doot who fought against untouchability, disability and castesism. Sree Narayana Guru was not only a leader of Ezhava community but a great soul who actually give leadership to the whole of India.”

Sanatana Dharma’, the official journal of the Theosophical Society, thus wrote about him soon after his mahasamadhi in 1928:

“During recent centuries, no one in India has enjoyed so much reverence as Sree Narayana Guru commanded-a reverence so glorious, so enduring, so comprehensive, so universal and so pure. His life has exemplified the great truth that, some times courageous souls who has attained liberation do take birth among peoples who are oppressed by custom to show them the path of emancipation, and in doing so, take upon themselves, suffering and Rishi Narayana, who was to awakened Malabar Patanjali in yoga, Sankara in wisdom, Manu in the art of Government, Budha in renunciation, Mohamed in Strength of spirit, and Christ in humility, after 72 years spent in the drama of human life has gone back to whence he came.”


His manifesto thus says: “All people alike desire for happiness. All spiritual and material institutions work with this aim. But human soul long for an everlasting happiness in place of short-lived material happiness. Towards this goal human soul is making its pilgrimage.

To get physical, mental and spiritual happiness for a community, its members’ adherence to cleanliness, religious customs and morality help to a great extent. Worshipping centers and temples contribute to a long extent to extent these to all people. But to have all these, members of the community require financial progress also. For this we have to improve and reform agriculture, trade and technical training etc.

Materialism and spiritualism are not two entities. These are both sides of a coin or the both wings of the same bird. These two actually work for the same purpose. When all organs in a body work together, the body experiences happiness. Similarly to achieve mankind’s ultimate aim of happiness material as well as spiritual institutions are to work together.


Be enlightened with education.

Be strengthened with organization.

Make progress through industry.

Don’t speak caste, ask caste and think caste.

One caste, one religion and one God for mankind.

Whatever be the religion, it is sufficient if it is good for mankind.

Whatever be the difference in faith, dress or language, as all humanity belongs to one caste, there is no harm in inter- marriage and inter-dining.

Do not make liquor, don’t drink it and don’t sell it.

Spend judiciously.

Man who knows dharma should work hard for the progress and well being of his neighbour.

62.Mitavadi C. Krishnan

Mitavadi C. Krishnan
(1867-1938 AD) C. Krishnan played a key role in bringing out radical social transformation in Kerala society which was steeped in ignorance, superstition, casteism, poverty, untouchability and other evils. A defender of human rights, he propogated the ideals of humanism, social justice and democratic values. He was called ‘Mitavadi’ C. Krishnan after the newspaper that he published from 1913 to ’38 from Calicut for spreading the message of the reformatory movement. The Government of Kerala states "The Mitavadi was in the forefront of the movement for social reforms and the uplift of the weaker sections of society".
1867-1938 Kerala's Leading Social Reformer

C. Krishnan was born on June 11, 1867 in Trichur District. He was an important member of a group of dedicated workers who were at the forefront fighting for the implementation of the revolutionary social reforms that Sri Narayana Guru preached for the uplift of the downtrodden millions of Kerala. He was called ‘Mitavadi’ C. Krishnan after the newspaper that he published from 1913 to ’38 from Calicut for spreading the message of the reformatory movement. Mitavadi was the "Bible" of the socially depressed.

C. Krishnan worked in the Malabar region for spreading the activities of ‘Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam’ (S.N.D.P. Yogam), the association that was formed for fighting for the progressive ideals that the Guru formulated for the social uplift of the downtrodden. He participated in many conventions that the ‘Yogam’ organized, and chaired its 9th anniversary that was held at Sivagiri along with the consecration ceremony of ‘Sharada’ temple there. In his speech he observed that though prima face the ‘Yogam’ looked like the venture of a particular caste, its activities are applicable to the whole nation as its basis was compassion. Since its leadership stood for the love and justice of all people, all other societies could work on its ideals. C. Krishnan was appointed as the Dharmakartha (dispenser of justice) of all ashram properties including its temples and mutts. He was not only an excellent organiser but also an able fund raiser for the Yogam. Albeit very involved in the Yogam's activities, he was critical at times and in 1917 he pointed out in the Mitavadi that they were satisfied with holding the annual conference at Kollam and simply submitting memoranda. He wanted them to take up revolutionary programmes to address the many issues that heaped oppression and injustice on the downtrodden.

C. Krishnan was an ardent devotee of Gandhiji's ideals in the early stage in Gandhiji's political career, later he became a bitter detractor of Gandhi. This was a result of his fierce committment to the upliftment of the backward classes and his apprehension that the upper caste leadership of the Indian National Congress would never do justice to the socially hapless. Around 1918, C. Krishnan had invited Gandhiji to Calicut and convened a meeting at Paran Square which was presided over by Gandhiji. After the meeting, there was a private tete-a-tete with Gandhi and C. Krishnan drew Gandhi's attention to casteism, savarna domination, untouchability, poverty and the denial of civil and human rights to the non-savarnas. He wanted Gandhiji to give prime importance to the elimination of casteism and wanted it to be included as the first programme in the political agenda of the Congress. Krishnan believed that political freedom would be hollow and meaningless without social freedom. Gandhiji listened to Krishnan's views and he meditated on Krishnan's caveate. After Gandhiji's meeting with Krishnan, he gave importance to the fight against injustice and inequalities of all kinds caused by casteism

C. Krishnan supported the British rule because he believed that freedom for rule without freedom from serfdom was meaningless. As a consequence of his witnessing the bloodshed and inhuman violence of the Mapilla revolt in Malabar in 1921, which was partly due to Congress's inefficiency in containing violence, C. Krishnan became a critic of Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement as he blamed Gandhiji for his failure to prevent the Malabar rebellion. He was suspicious of the national freedom that would be won without putting an end to the social inequalities. He was conscious of the fact that the downtrodden and suffering millions of India had imbibed the ideals of freedom and progress just from the education and the systems that the British stood for. Mr. K. Kelappan, a great follower of Gandhiji, observed that C. Krishnan could not be found fault with for his support for the British. He did not believe in the attitude of the Congress Party that social evils could be got rid of after getting freedom for the country.

In his speech at the Youth Convention held at Cherthala, Kerala, in 1924 that C. Krishnan chaired, he gave vent to his anger at the Congress Party for not fighting for the eradication of the social practices that degraded socially the backward classes. In 1936 he wrote that in a country with communities having diverse interests, there would be no nationalist feeling. India remained disunited just because Hindus and Moslems and Christians very rarely united and worked together with mutual trust. His observation that it was more difficult to unite various castes in Hinduism than different religions remains true even decades after India’s independence. In 1937 he wrote that freedom won without gaining equality for all would lead to the domination of the minorities by the majority communities. He wanted the nationalists to find a solution for eliminating the impediments to social equality as political freedom would be meaningful only if various social groups tried for friendship between them.

In 1917, C. Krishnan's challenged the order by the Estate Collector to prohibit lower castes from walking the public roads leading to the Tali temple. His defiance of the order was a frontrunner to all struggles demanding the right to worship and to use public roads. He observed that there was no govt. or society anywhere else in the world that prohibited the use of public roads by a section of the society, and also prohibited them from going near places of worship. At the same time he lauded the Congress for participating in the struggle of the backward classes in Travancore for the right to have access to temple roads at the famous temple at Vaikom in 1924-1925. Gandhiji was also involved in the Vaikom Satyagraha and it had an important influence on the Congress party's national programme. C. Krishnan was in the forefront of people who supported the Vaikom struggle by providing material support. He wrote many editorials in his newspaper supporting this cause. In one editorial he wrote thus: “For a hundred years the Govt. of Travancore prohibited the people from entering schools. Now, they are blocking the roads also… They have worsened the situation than that in Russia.” He warned the govt. that the real owners of the land were the people and not the king and his govt. servants. When the rulers of Russia were overthrown from power at the conclusion of the Revolution, he warned again the Govt. of Travancore, and reminded the rulers of the imprisoning of the Russian rulers by the people there.

C. Krishnan believed that means to livelihood and education were essential for self-respect. He urged the downtrodden not to think of class differences. In an editorial that he wrote in 1916 he observed that though freedom for govt. employment was the right of the backward classes, it was not the only means for their upliftment. Though the Jews were persecuted in Europe by the Christian kings and people, they never went down in their social status. Likewise, others might try to prevent the untouchables from getting education, and the use of public roads. But, they could not prevent them from being honest, and also from rejecting the drinking of liquor.

C. Krishnan exhorted that use of liquor was the major cause for human misery. If there were a group of untouchables in the world, they were the ones who drank. There were politicians and public men of the lower order who, pretending to be well-wishers of the working class, justify the liquor consumption of the labourers as a method of getting solace to the latter. Krishnan knew that drunkards were ruining themselves, besides spoiling their families, society and ultimately the state itself. Consumption of liquor, Krishnan thought, would take away the brighter side of human life, and the drunkard would be the best friend of darkness. He was a strong advocate of temperance.
C. Krishnan believed that education can ensure progress, and its calculated denial can invite demotion at all levels. At a time when education was a privilege and right of select sections, establishment of 'Balaprabodhini Sanskrit Patasala' by C. Krishnan was a frontal attack on the absolute right of the upper caste to have Sanskrit education. This later became a centre of learning. For the educational, cultural and social development of the depressed classes, he formed a club in Calicut called S.N.D.P. Club in 1912.

Progressive social reforms always caught the attention of C. Krishnan. Untouchability, superstitions, child marriage, polygamy and polyandry, womens's freedom etc., naturally fell under the spheres of activity of Krishnan. Through his columns in Mitavadi, he championed women's rights, condemning the oppression of and violence to women. He argued for equal pay and equal opportunities for women, stressing that a civil society could exist only if all its members enjoyed equal rights. Discrimination against women was a violation of human rights. Whenever he came to know about crimes against women, he came forward to defend the cause of women.

ince tenancy reforms could ensure the economic progress of the tenants, he strongly pleaded for radical changes in this front. Most of the tenants were from the socially backward sections and as such their social elevation had to be supplemented by economic salvation. C. Krishnan played a prominent part in the tenancy reform agitation in Malabar which resulted in the passing of the Malabar Tenancy Act of 1930. He criticised the Madras government for their slow efforts in dealing with tenancy reforms.

For the economic upliftment of the depressed classes C. Krishnan started Calicut Bank in 1909. However, his friends and relatives were responsible for the liquidation of the bank. Subsequently, on the advise of C. Krishnan, Ramavilasom Bank was started in Travancore by a staff of Calicut bank for the depressed classes. Though C. Krishnan's banking enterprise did not succeed, it taught the depressed classes the great lesson of economic self-reliance.

The life of C. Krishnan stands as an example of dedicated workers who surrounded Sri Narayana Guru who championed human equality for the upliftment of the degraded millions. Albeit influenced and initiated by the Guru, C. Krishnan had his own views particularly with regard to his propagating of Buddhism. He was his own man.

C. Krishnan's social work and his championing of the rights of the depressed people led to important responsibilities. He was the first non-official president of the Calicut Taluk Board and he occupied that position for ten years. He served as the member of the Malabar District Board and Calicut Municipal Council. He was a nominated member of the Madras Legislative Council from 1930 to 1936.

Though C. Krishnan could have entered the govt. service and risen to higher positions by virtue of his education and affluence, he sacrificed all those opportunities for leading the backward classes out of the social dungeons to enjoy sunshine and freedom like the members of the so called forward communities in India. C. Krishnan, assuming the stength of a typhoon, tried to dismantle the castles of crass obscurantism, where superstitions had been ingeneously housed by the orthodox Hindus.

. Krishnan tried his best to practise what he preached. A man of sterling character, he was free from extravaganza and pomposity. He was humane and generous. He was a charismatic leader. As a spokesman for the rights of the tenants, a lawyer, a crusader for civil and human rights, a fearless editor, a great orator, a free thinker, a social reformer and a banker, he had left an indelible impression on Malayalees. C. Krishnan's name is inevitably connected with the social revolution in Kerala and the contribution he made to the creation of modern Kerala society, with its democratic secular culture and human values, will always be remembered and appreciated. The history of Kerala's development is incomplete without due recognition of C. Krishnan's life and career.

‘The Mathrubhumi’ (newspaper) wrote thus while paying tributes to him on his death (1938, November 29): ‘It is a difficult task for an individual to work in public for such vast and diverse causes for such a long time.’ This observation really referred to the idealism and dedication that he practiced throughout his life for the genuine cause that he championed.

The Government of Kerala salutes C. Krishnan's contribution towards social reform: 'The Mitavadi was in the forefront of the movement for social reforms and the uplift of the weaker sections of society. In the treatment of news the magazine showed a keen awareness of the relevant and the indispensable.'

61.Dr.Padmanabhan Palpu

Dr.Padmanabhan Palpu LMS, DPH (Cantab) FRIPH (London) is one of the immortals of the Indian Renaissance. He was by profession a bacteriologist - a fighter of germs. Circumstances made him a social revolutionary - a fighter of manmade social evils. Towards this end he waged a long, heroic and self-less battle, with his mighty pen. It was mainly against the official and priestly sections of the contemporary society. In the face of all their organized opposition and ill-treatment, he stood apart as an apostle of liberty and unfailing champion of the oppressed classes.

He was born on November 2, 1863 in Petta, Trivandrum part of Indian princely state of Travancore, present-day Kerala, from a wealthy Ezhava family. Dr. Palpu was a contemporary and follower of Narayana Guru. He was a prominent Indian literary, physician, and philanthropist during the Indian Independence Movement. He was father of Nataraja Guru, who was the direct disciple of Narayana Guru. A London trained physician who later abandoned his profession to affect social and spiritual reform within his community.

He remains ever an example of the persecution that the backward communities suffered in Kerala in those days. In 1884 Dr. Palpu appeared for the pre-qualification entrance examinations conducted by the Travancore State Government and was ranked fourth. However, he was denied a seat to study medicine due to his lower caste which was a form of discriminations prevalent during this time in Kerala. Dr. Palpu Later gained admission at the famed Madras Medical College. He faced more obstacles when he returned to Travancore when the Government denied him a career in medicine for the same reason. A determined young Dr. Palpu went to Mysore, a neighboring state, and started his practice there at a princely sum of Rs. 100 a month. At the time the Government of Travancore was offering a salary of Rs 5.

Dr. Palpu sought the advice of the famed Indian saint Swami Vivekananda to unite and work towards the emancipation of the Ezhava caste. It was the advice given by Swami Vivekananda to associate with some spiritual person in his effort to fight for the rights of the Ezhavas that drew him to Sri Narayana Guru. The Swami asked Dr. Palpu to Spiritualize and Industrialize the Masses. Swami told him that the garb of spirituality was essential for any organization to be successful in India. In 1903 Dr. Palpu founded the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam, known as SNDP. SNDP later became thus beacon for many social movements in Kerala. Little did he realize then that this organisation would later become the cornerstone of major social and religious reformation that would envelope the entire state. Although an Ezhava himself, Dr. Palpu was not limited to working within the bounds of his own caste.

Dr. Palpu was a relentless fighter for the cause of the Ezhavas in Kerala. He wrote many articles in English newspapers published from India highlighting the degrading customs in Kerala that made the condition of the Ezhavas miserable. He published at his own cost the book, Treatment of Thiyas in Travancore, a compilation of the memorandums that were submitted to the Travancore Government., and the articles that he wrote in newspapers. This book, and its translation that he published in Malayalam, became records for the future generations to know about the horrible social situation that existed at that time.

Ezhava Memorial was landmark in the struggle of the backward classes for gaining their legitimate rights from the Government that was representative of the mad social customs that prevailed in the state at that time. During that period, Malayali Memorial which was submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore in 1891 marked the beginning of the united social effort in the state to press the demands of jobs for locals. This mass petition in which Dr. Palpu was the third signatory complained about the ‘Divans’ (government officers) who came from outside the state, and appropriated a greater part of the jobs for their own people. The memorandum spoke about the pitiable condition of Ezhavas of the State who were denied even the lowest government Though jobs for their counterparts could occupy even higher jobs in the Malabar State due to the absence of any discrimination there. The government in its reply dated 1891 April 21st stated that since the Ezhavas were generally uneducated, it was better for them to pursue their present occupations like cultivation, coir making, and toddy tapping than trying to get education.

As Dr. Palpu was irritated by this humiliating reply from the authorities, he frequently visited the state to organize the backward people to protest against the callousness of the rulers. He realized that organized protest was the only way to put an end to the inhuman discretion that the government practiced against the majority of its own people. He soon formed the Ezhava Maha Sabha (Greater Ezhava Association) and more than 300 hundred people attended its first meeting held at Thiruvananthapuram. The meeting decided to submit a mass petition to the government signed by ten thousand Ezhavas demanding the abolition of the discrimination against them. Dr. Palpu himself took the initiative to get the signatures, and on 1896 September 3rd the petition, the historically famous Ezhava Memorial, signed by 13176 people was submitted to the Government In the memorandum Dr. Palpu enumerated as an example the humiliations that the members of his own family had to suffer from Government

His next move was to bring to the attention of the British Parliament the injustices done by the Travancore Government to the Ezhavas, and the difficulties that they experienced in the social life in the state. Dr. Palpu sent Barrister G.P.Pillai with a letter secured from Sister Niveditha, the disciple of Swami Vivekananda, to England to get some Member of the British Parliament to represent the case of the Ezhavas. Dr. Palpu shared the major part of the expenditure. In addition to this, when he went to England for higher studies, he got Deadbeat Navroji who was a member of the British Parliament to raise a question regarding the condition of Ezhavas in the Parliament. With his help a memorandum was submitted to the State Secretary for India. All these measures taken by the doctor began to have results at home when the British Government began to enquire about the condition of the Ezhavas in the State.

As a social reformer Dr. Palpu was a firm believer in the principle of Dharma. This symbolized such factor as absolute truth, self-less love and benevolent service. All his philanthropic efforts as the right-hand man of Sree Narayana Guru were geared to this noble goal. The Dharma Vs organized perfidy, Priestly and Official is an open declaration of the faith of this social reformer. The following quatrain which sums up his attitude to Dharma is said to have been used by the Guru as his message:

Dharma knows only one caste

And it tends only one religion

That Dharma is our only God

Let all men abide by it.

To uphold Dharma, Palpu was ready to make any sacrifice. The extent of this sacrifice is amply evident in the Will he has left for posterity. It is a noble record of the ideals he preached and practiced. He dedicates in it all his material and non material acquisitions including that of his children for the uplift of the masses. A part of it runs as follows: We are all public servants and must live for the welfare of the society. To uplift it a good financial reserve is essential. I therefore set apart all my material assets and possible future earnings, all wealth that is due to my wife and children and their earnings for the benefit of the society at large.

Dr. Palpu also started the Malabar Economic Union. A large portion of the proceeds of this venture was spent of welfare and philanthropy. Dr. Palpu died on January 25, 1950. A day before India became a Republic. He has influenced the works and lives of several noted personalities in Kerala like Kumaran Asan, T. K. Madhavan.

60.Sahodaran Ayyappan

Sree Narayana Gurudevan and Sahodaran Ayyappan

Ayyappan was the founder of the Sahodhara Sangham (Association of Brotherhood). He carried out an immortal role for himself in the history of Kerala by the revolutionary changes he effected and the sufferings he underwent for the uplift of every man, woman and child, paying special attention to the lowly section of society. The more orthodox among the Ezhavas were averse to granting to castes to lower than themselves the rights and privileges that they were gaining one after other from the higher castes. That was by no means Sree Narayana Guru’s idea of reform. It has to be applied in every case consistently.

Ayyappan was born on August 21, 1889. After finishing high school, with Sree Narayana Guru’s advice and help he joined Trivandrum Maharajas College for higher education.

He was the first Ezhava to become a graduate in Cochin State. All the lower castes were so proud of him that they called him Ayyappan B.A. as if the degree was part of his name. He was honored like a price. And people simply hung on his lips. They had great hopes of him becoming a great man. Sure enough, he did become one, but not in the way they wanted him to be.

Ayyappan wanted all the untouchables to mix together, interdine and even intermarry. Once again a leader had arisen who appeared to be far ahead of his times. The people who had rejoiced in having got a treasure found that they had caught a tartar.

He preached equality among all castes. Preaching was easy. But here he was actually giving shape to a Sahodhara Sangham and going about practicing what he was preaching. That was too much for many people to swallow. They advised him, criticized him, laughed at him, abused him, beat him up, at last they crowned him with a huge crown of stinging ants! He started a magazine named “Sahodharan”; people started to call him Sahodharan Ayyappan.

Sahodharan Ayyappan suffered all this with endless patience. But, when people started to say that he was going against Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyappan went straight to Guru and sought advice. Guru gave him his support in writing the following message:

“Whatever be the dress, customs, caste or religion of individuals, since they are all human beings, there can be no objection to their interdining or intermarrying.” This also has become a famous message, one of the universal statements of Sree Narayana Guru.

Such epigrammatic saying contained the principles on which people were to rely in their day-to-day lives. They helped them to appreciate the fundamental philosophy of oneness underlying the entire universe. They knew that such a basis did exist and that was enough for them.

Sree Narayana Guru blessed his great disciple Ayyappan with these inspiring words: “You must have the patience of Jesus Christ.” This supreme compliment paid by the Guru in the form of advice was richly deserved.

Ayyappan traveled throughout Kerala preaching Sree Narayana Guru’s message like a typhoon, winning all the way. The people of Kerala never returned to their orthodoxy after that.

Sahodharan Ayyappan died on March 6, 1968.

59.Swami Earnest Clark

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Swami Earnest Clark

Earnest Clark was the only foreigner who was a direct Sanyasin disciple of the Guru. He admired many spiritual leaders in India . He came to India and joined Annie Basant's Theosophical Society. While working there he traveled to many sacred places in India and happened to visit Sivagiri.

Earnest Clark met Guru there and told Guru about his intention to stay there and Guru arranged the facilities for him. Swami Dharma Theerthar and Shri. K.M. John were Guru's interpreters. Shri. K.M. john, who was a teacher by profession, was staying at Sivagiri and teaching Bible. At that time Guru was thinking about how to use the assets of Sivagiri for the benefit of the people in a useful way. He consulted many people about it and appointed a committee to prepare a project. Earnest Clark was the convener of that committee and he played a major role in preparing and presenting the, ‘Sivagiri Free Industrial and Agricultural Gurukulam', project to Guru.

It was a project to connect Agriculture and Industry to Education. Even Mahatama Gandhi never thought about vocational education at that period. Shri. P. Natarajan (later become Nataraja Guru) was responsible for the educational matters. Later Earnest Clark became a Sanyasin, but Guru never asked him to change his name. In 1927 the ‘Sivagiri Free Industrial and Agricultural Gurukulam' project started to function, but Guru's Samadhi affected it and the project was abandoned.

After Guru's Samadhi Swami Earnest Clark left Sivagiri due to the court case and politics. He moved to Coimbatore and founded Sree Narayana Ashram there. From there he started a publication, ‘Life', which gave importance to Guru's philosophy. Swami Dharma Theerthar wrote the ‘Prophet of Peace' owing to Swami Earnest Clark's request. In 1942 he was removed from the Dharma Sangham by the authorities of the Sree Narayana Dharma Sangham. It did not stop Swami Earnest Clark propagating Guru's words.

58.Swami AananthaTheerthar

Swami AananthaTheerthar was the last disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. He was a fabulous personality in the fight against social injustices in Kerala. Anantha Shenoy was born in a rich Gowdasaraswath Brahmin family of Thalassery. He took Bsc (Hon) degree in Physics from Madras University . At that time it was very easy for him to get a high paying job anywhere in India , but he was interested in public service.

Anantha Shenoy heard about Sree Narayana Guru. When he was studying at Tellicherry Brannen College Guru visited Jagannatha Temple there, but Anantha Shenoy did not show any interest in meeting the Guru. He thought Guru was just a religious leader of Ezhavas. But he started to admire Sree Narayana Guru when he read Guru's conversation with Mahatma Gandhi and learning more about his work against social injustices. He got attracted to National movement and wanted to live at Mahatma's Sabarmathi Ashram. He sought Rajaji's help for this, but Rajaji advised him to go and stay at Sabari Ashram in Palghat. Sabari Ashram was started for the upliftment of the downtrodden. In 1926 Anantha Shenoy became a member of that Ashram.

He met Guru for the first time at a house in Coimbatore ; Guru talked to him in great interest when he heard Shenoy was working for Sabari Ashram. In August 1928 he accepted the ascetic way of life and became the disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. Guru gave him the name Anantha Theerthar. He spent all his life for the uplift the life of Harijans. He faced a lot of opposition from the upper caste people and sometimes even suffered physical harassment. He selected Payannur as his work area and started Sree Narayana School and hostel there for Harijan children. This institution is widely known as Ashram. He changed the venue of this school three times due to the strong hostility of the people there.

He was one of the few disciples who continued Guru's deed of the fight against social evils.

57. Vidyananda Swamikal

This Sanyasin disciple of Sree Narayana Guru was born into a joint family in Kavalam, Kuttanadu. Many of his family members were Ayurvedic medical practitioners. His name was Ramankutty. He studied at Sanadhana Dharma High School , Alleppey and he passed High School with high marks. He could not continue his education because of the sudden death of his three uncles. These tragedies exhausted him mentally; he left his home and visited many religious places.

He came to the Adwaita Ashram while Guru was staying there. After hearing Ramankutty's story Guru asked him to stay there. He arranged Ramankutty a job at the Sanskrit School . His staying at the Ashram helped him to improve his skills in the Sanskrit language. He also spoke English, Tamil, Kannada and Telugu. Later he was initiated as a monk by Guru and received the name, ‘Vidyananda'. After Guru's Samadhi Vidyananda Swami moved to Kancheepuram Sree Narayana Seva Ashram, later to Mambalam.

A rich person donated some land near Mambalam and the Swami founded Sree Narayana Mission there. Later he started an infirmary adjunct to the Mission . This free sanatorium was a big help for the poor people in that area. Vidyananda Swami wrote an interpretation for Sree Narayana Guru's ‘Darsanamala'. Guru titled this book as ‘Dheedhidi', which means ray.This book became an important means of reference to many scholars. He wrote many articles, mostly related to Guru's philosophy, and published in periodicals. In 1959 Swami became ill and partially paralyzed. He spent the end of his life in Changanacherry and attained Samadhi in 1964.

56. Sankarananda Swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Sankarananda Swamikal

The fourth head of Sivagiri Mutt. His name was Sankaran. He was born into a financially well to do family in Puthullad, Trichur district. . He did not show much interest in formal education. From his early life he showed interest in Spirituality. Due to the pressure from his family members he started a family life, but that did not last long. He left the house and traveled to different holy places in South India .

After staying at Ramana Maharshi's Thiruvanna malai for a brief period he came to Palghat and stayed at Brahmananda Shiva Yogi's ashram. After some time he went back to his native place and started to live there. He was heard about Guru and his social activities. When Guru was staying at Peringottukara ashram, he went to see Guru and told him about his mental dilemma. Guru told Sankaran that, “if his path is right he will reach his aim”. He went back home and told his relatives about his wish to join Guru as a Sanyasin.

Next day, accompanied by his uncle, he went to Adwaitha ashram and met Guru. With Guru's blessings he became an inmate at the ashram. Later Guru gave him a new name, ‘Sankarananda', and accepted him as Guru's sanysin disciple. . He served as the administrator of the Await Ashram for a long time.

After Achuthananda Swami's samadhi, Sankarananda became the head of Sivagiri Mutt. Guru's hundredth birth anniversary was celebrated while he was the head of the Mutt. He was not an orator or writer, but he showed much interest in collecting and publishing Guru's works. Two periodicals, ‘Navajeevan' and ‘Sivagiri' were published during his time.

The commencement of Sivagiri pilgrimage, the celebration of Guru's hundredth birth anniversary and the construction of Maha Samadhi Mandir were occurred while he was the head of the Mutt.

55. Atmananda swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Atmananda Swamikal

His name was Rama Panicker before he became the disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. Born in a Kanisa community on July27, 1870, in Villyapally village in Bhadagara Taluk. Astrology was his family's traditional job. Rama Panicker was a scholar in many subjects like Sanskrit, astrology, philosophy, ayurveda etc. He worked as a Sanskrit teacher in 'Vidhyarthi Chinthamani' Sanskrit school in Tellicherry.

He met Sree Narayana Guru when Guru was visiting Tellicherry. Guru was very much impressed in Rama Panicker's knowledge in Sanskrit. Guru invited him to be a teacher at Adwaitha Ashram Sanskrit school. Later he joined as the Head Master of Adwaitha Ashram Sanskrit School. His staying at the Ashram gave him to know more about the Guru. Later he was initiated as a Snyasin by Guru and gave him a new name - ‘Atmananda' and stayed at Sivagiri.

Govinananda Swami invited him to Kancheepuram Ashram. He visited the Ashram many times and helped Govindananda to improve the Sree Narayana Seva Ashram. His hard work brought lots of financial assets to the Ashram. Later he stayed there permanently. He was famous in that area as an Ayurvedic medical practitioner and people called him ‘Valiya Gurukkal' or ‘Great Teacher'. He wrote many poems about Guru. One of his published work ‘Sree Narayana Dharma', is one of the best books to understand Guru's thoughts. On November 12, 1969 Atmananda Swami attained Samadhi at the age of 100.

54.Govindananda Swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Govindananda Swamikal

He served as a police officer before he became Sree Narayana Guru's sanayasin disciple. He was born in Mulankadu near Ernakulam and many of his relatives still live in Palluruthy area. He came to know about Guru and his activities through Bodhananda Swami, whom he was a follower of.

He resigned his job and joined the Sivagiri Ashram. There, he studied Vedanta and philosophy. After Bodhananda Swami's samadhi, Govindananda Swami became the head of Sivagiri Mutt. He had a piece of property in Kancheepuram that was donated by one of Guru's followers; he founded a Sree Narayana Seva Ashram there.

Later a sanatorium was started adjoined to this Ashram. He traveled to Japan , Malaya and Burma to propagate Guru's words. Govindananda activities helped a lot to propagate the gospel of the Guru in Tamil Nadu. Govindananda Swami felt ill while he was visiting this Ashram and attained Samadhi at the age of 105.

Saturday, May 30, 2009

53. Satyavrida Swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Satyavrutha Swamikal

Satyavrida Swamikal , known as Ayappan Pillai in his early life, came from a middle class Nair family near Changanacherry. He was a teacher. Ayappan Pillai did not have much respect for Sree Narayana Guru before he met the Guru. He only knew about Guru through the exaggerated stories by Ezhavas in his neighborhood. When he went to participate in the Sivarathri festival at Alwaye Guru was staying at Adwaita Ashram.

His curiosity made him to go to the Ashram and see the ‘Ezhava Guru'. He could see Guru only from a distance because of the huge crowd. “I saw compassion, love and confidence on his face”, later Satyavrida Swami said. The next day he went to Guru and discussed many matters with him. After coming back home he became restless and he wanted to go and stay with Guru. His income was a great help to his family, so he was faced with a dilemma. But with his mother's blessings he left his house in 1916 and joined as an inmate at the Adwaita Ashram.

Sree Narayana Guru appointed him as the Malayalam teacher at the Sanskrit school there and made arrangements for him to learn Sanskrit. Guru accepted Ayappan Pillai as his Sanyasin disciple. Because of his straight forwardness and honesty, Guru named him ‘Satyavridan'. He was a scholar and a forceful orator. He had the talent of speaking to the common people in simple language. He became a regular speaker at many public meetings and his speeches attracted more people to the meetings.

He accompanied Guru to Ceylon 1918. Guru asked Satyavrida Swami to stay in Ceylon for a while; he spent three years there. Guru wanted him to start evening schools there. Within those 3 years he started 30 evening schools and many Sree Narayana organizations there. When he came back he started to work as the editor of ‘Navajeevan' magazine. In 1921 he went back to Ceylon for 3 months.

He became the Secretary of Adwaita Ashram in 1922 and Guru asked him to mange all the properties belonged to the Ashram. He was one of the few true proponents of Guru's principles. Not many people in Kerala worked like Satyavrida Swami against the caste system. Guru once said, “Satyavridan has no caste feelings at all; even I have such feelings sometimes. He even excels Buddha in forgetting caste”.

He was one of the three people Guru appointed to coordinate the ‘All Religious Conference at Alwaye'. The others were Sahodharan Ayappan and C.V. Kunhuraman. His hard work was one of the reasons for the huge success of the conference. Satyavrida Swami was one of the few disciples who lived a life of Guru's ideology. Unfortunately his life was cut short in 1926 at the age of 32. Upon hearing of his death the Guru was overwhelmed with sorrow.

52.Swami Dharma Theerthar (Jhon Dharma Theerthar)

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Swami Dharma Theerthar

He was Prameswara Menon before he became the disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. He received his B.A. degree from Madras Presidency College . He worked in the Cochin government service for a brief period before he joined Bombay University for LLB. After receiving his law degree he started his law practice in the Trichur area. Soon he became a famous lawyer in that area. His activities against untouchability and other unorthodox practices made him popular.

He worked as the editor of ‘Snehithan' magazine that was published from Trichur. At this time he became acquainted with Bodhananda and got attracted to his activities. He was a very good orator, so he became a regular speaker at the meetings arranged by Bodhananda Swami. He visited Aruvippuram and Sivagiri many times with Bodhananda Swami. These visits gave him the chance to learn about Sree Narayana Guru and his works. Parameswara Menon stopped his practice and moved to Sivagiri. After 2 years Guru accepted him as his disciple and re-named him as Dharma Theerthar.

He was Guru's first Sanyasin disciple with a college degree. He traveled many places with Guru and served as an interpreter. Guru sought his legal advice before registering the Sree Narayana Dharma Sangham. He served as the Secretary of the Dharma Sangam for a long time. He started the systematic way of keeping accounts and records at Sivagiri Mutt. Swami Dharma Theerthar was the first person who took the initiative to collect Guru's literary works and publish them. He wrote, ‘the Prophet of Peace', first English book about Guru. He wrote and published many books in Malayalam and English. In 1941 he wrote and published a book, ‘Menance to Hindu Imperialism', about secularism in India . This book was later republished with a new title - ‘History of Hindu Imperialism'.

In this book Dharma Theerthar says these words about his Guru: “The greatest saint, reformer, teacher and nation builder Travancore has produced, since the days of the first Sree Sankaracharya, was undoubtedly the late Sree Narayana Guru Swami. In any other country he would have been universally acclaimed as a savior and Prophet. But in the Hindu state, caste envelops in dark clouds even such great souls and prevents their light from penetrating in the open world when Rishi like him could not overcome the caste prejudices of a Hindu state”. Even though he was associated with Sivagiri for than 30 years, the politics that occurred after Guru's samadhi made him leave that place. He traveled in North India . Later he embraced Christianity and became John Dharma Theerthar, but till the end of his life, he spread Guru's philosophy.

51.Chaitanya Swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Chaitanya Swamikal

Chaithanya Swami was born in Varkala in 1877 as Narayana Pillai. He did not have any formal education, but learned to read and write Malayalam. He had some knowledge about the art of building, constructing and sculpture. It was Chattambi Swamikal who sent him to Sree Narayana Guru.

When Guru saw Narayana Pillai for the first time, Guru said: “Caste and religion are not an obstacle for human relationship, moreover we have the same name. It is good! Others will get confused, so a name change is necessary; from now onwards you are ‘Narayana Chaitanyan'.Later he became a Sanyasin and accepted ‘Chaitanya' as his ascetic name. He faced a lot of opposition from his family members for associating with Sree Narayana Guru. He was the second person to ordain as a Sanyasin by the Guru. He had a superb administrative capacity and a high talent to adapt with others. He was instructed by Guru to look after Guru's institutions.

Chaitanya Swami supervised the construction of Thalaserry Jagannatha Temple , Kozhikkode Sree Khanadeswara Temple , Kannur Sundreswara Temple and many other monasteries. He was one of the three witnesses who signed in the application to form Sree Narayana Dharma Sangham. N. Kumaru and P. Narayana Pillai were the other witnesses. He served as the secretary of Alwaye Adwaita Ashram and as the administrator of the Sanskrit school there.

Guru's famous composition ‘Atma Bodham' was copied down by him and kept safely. ‘Atma Bodham' was later renamed as ‘Atmopadesa Satakam'. Chaithanya Swami established Sree Narayana Ashram at West Hill in Kozhikkode. He continued his humanitarian activities and spread the gospel of Sree Narayana Guru till his Samadhi in 1953. He has written a book dealing with Guru's views on reformation of marriage, post – death rites etc.

50. Sadguru Sivalingadasa Swamikal

Disciple of Sree Narayana gurudevan

Sadguru Sivalingadasa Swamikal

Sivalingadasa Swamikal was one of the first and prominent disciples of Narayana Guru. He was born in 1859 in an orthodox Nair family in Aruvippuram. Before he became a Sanyasin he was known as Ayappan Pillai. Swami met Guru for the first time when Guru was staying in a cave near Neyyar River . He listened to Guru's words very carefully and sometimes he accompanied Guru in his journeys. Guru taught him some Sanskrit and later send him to Perunelli Krishnan Vaidyar for further study. He learned Sanskrit grammar under famous Sanskrit scholar Shri. Venkateswara Sasthri.

He became acquainted with Kumaran, who later became the poet Mahakavi KumaranAsan, at Aruvippuram and they became close friends. In 1905 Ayappan Pillai accepted the ascetic way of life from Guru and became Sivalingadasa Swami. When Guru moved to Varkala he took Sivalingadasa Swami with him. Sivalingadasa Swami helped to build a hermitage for Guru at Sivagiri. He served in many Ashrams and temples according to Guru's suggestions. Later he stayed at Trichur Peringottukara Ashram; he started a Sanskrit school there. Later in his life he left the Ashram and started to live in Viswanatha Temple in Chavakkad.

In 1919 Sivalinga Swami attained Samadhi. Kumaranasan wrote the poem ‘Parannu poya hamsam' (The flown away Swan) in remembrance of the Swami. The Swamikal wrote many spiritual compositions, ‘Vedanthasaravali', ‘Sharadhashtakam', and ‘Sree Narayana Guruvarya Panchakam' are a few his famous works.

49.Divyasree Bodhananda swamikal

Divyasree Bodhananda Swamikal

Bodhananda Swamikal was already a Sanyasin before he became Sree Narayana Guru's disciple. He was born in a middle class family in Chirakkal village in Trichur district. His parents named him Velayudhan. He had an extraordinary physique and piercing eyes. Besides Malayalam, he also had some knowledge of Sanskrit. He was well versed in Ayurvedic treatment. From an early age he argued against inequality in the society. Due to the compulsion from his family he got married, but that relationship lasted only two years. He traveled to many places in North India and he accepted the Sanyasin life at Jyothir Mutt in Kasi. Jyothir Mutt, which followed the tradition of Sree Sankaracharya. Later he went to Bombay and stayed in an Ashram for a short time. He came back to Kerala and started agitations against untouchability and caste-lunacy.

He opposed idol worship. When he heard of Guru's program about the idol installation at Jagannatha Temple , he went there. He talked to many youngsters there about the meaninglessness of idol worship and asked them stay away from the function. They requested Bodhananda Swamikal to meet and talk to Narayana Guru. He went to the hermitage where Guru was staying, but did not get a chance to talk with the Guru. He went there again to meet with the Guru; he prostrated in front of the Guru. Bodhananda Swami expressed his opinion to Guru, but Guru's explanation about the necessity of Temples and Idols made Bodhananda Swami stay there until the function was over. Guru introduced him to Sivalinga Swami and Chaitanya Swami who were staying there. Sivalinga Swami invited him to Peringottukara Mutt. After this he became a frequent visitor to Aruvippuram and Peringottukara. He became a member and Treasurer of Sharada idol installation committee. In 1912, on the third day of Sharada idol installation, Guru accepted Bodhanda as his Sanyasi disciple. Guru sent him as his representative in many meetings and committees. Bodhananda Swamikal who opposed idol worship served as a member of the Sree Narayana Guru statue committee at Jagannatha Temple , Tellicherry.

This will show the depth of his devotion towards Sree Narayana Guru. He helped Nataraja Guru to set up the Narayana Gurukulam in Neelagiri. He spent a major portion of his life up-lifting the status of down-trodden people in his native state. He established the Cochin National Bank that helped the economic progress of the backward people in general. He codified Guru's precept on “Caste, Religion, Morality, Celibacy, Household duties etc, and published a book by name, “Sree Narayana Dharmam”. The Guru registered his will in Bodhananda Swami's name and made him his successor. But unfortunately Bodhananda Swamikal attained Samadhi two days after Guru's Samadhi, in 1928.

Samadhi mandap of Divyasree Bodhananda swamikal


NATARAJAGURU:The prime disciple and interpreter of the teachings of Sree Narayana Guru to world.

The youngest of his disciples in whom Narayana Guru showed much personal interest was Natarajan (afterwards Nataraja Guru), the second son of Dr. Palpu When this son of Dr. Palpu was born, the Guru himself named him as Natarajan, and the Doctor promised the Guru to give his son for Guru's cause. Narayana Guru found in this boy even from the age of twelve, a disciple as dedicated and firm as was St. Peter to Jesus Christ. On hearing the news that Natarajan passed his Master's Degree in Zoology and also simultaneously got his Teacher's Degree, Narayana Guru welcomed him to join him as a member of the ashram in Sivagiri. For a short while he taught in the Advaita Ashrams in Alwaye as an English teacher. Thereafter, the Guru made him the headmaster of the Sivagirl school.

In 1923 with the blessing of Narayana Guru, he started the Narayana Gurukula Movement. In 1928 Narayana Guru sent his beloved disciple for a final finishing course at the Sorbonne, in Paris, The future Nataraja Guru received his Doctorate of Letters from the Sorbonne on presenting a thesis on "The Personal Factor in the Educative Process." Subsequently he joined the Fellowship School in Geneva and taught there as a physics teacher for five years,

While Nataraja Guru was in Geneva he wrote a series of articles in the Sufi Quarterly. This caught the attention of eminent western thinkers such as Romain Rolland, Sir Francis Young Husband and Sommersmet Maugham. Afterwards Nataraja Guru established fifteen Centers of the Narayana Gurukula in India and also centers in New Jersey (U.S.A.), Ghent (Belgium), Geneva (Switzerland), and Singapore in South East Asia.

In his well known book The Word of The Guru there is a short biography of Narayana Guru, throwing light on the Guru's teachings. Nataraja Guru also commented on Narayana Guru's Atmoapadesa Satakam (One Hundred Verses of Self. Instruction). Nataraja Guru's interpretation of the Bhagavad Gita also throws light on Narayana Guru's attitude towards the Gita. Daiva-Dasakam, Advaita-Dipika, Janan-Navaratna Manjarl, Jivakarunya Panchakam, Anukampa-Dasakam, Pinda-Nandi, Chijia.da-Chintanam, Kundalini- Pattu, Brahmavidya-Panchakarn, Municharya-Panchakam, Kali. Natakam, Jati- Mimamsa, Siva-Prasida Panchakam, Arivu, Nirvrti-Panchakam, Darsana-Msla, Agni Hotra, Anubhut Dasakam and Prapancha-Suddhi Dasakam were all translated into English by Nataraja Guru. His magnam opus is an exhaustive commentary on the Darsana Mala. It is called An Integrated Science of the Absolute.

47.The Universal Guru- by Guru Nitya Chaithanya Yati

The Universal Guru- by Guru Nitya Chaithanya Yati

The Story of Narayana Guru is the story of the awakening and resurrection of the masses of India. Using the gentle power of persuasion, he influenced the proud Brahmins and the haughty rulers to accept the neglected masses of India as their fellow humans. By rousing the dormant dignity of self-respect in his fellow untouchables, he instilled dynamics in their quest for freedom. Through the acquisition of the required skills and education, they were further inspired by the Guru to aspire for their own equal share of all opportunities within the mainstream of socioeconomic and politicocultural advancements. With the aid of his own brilliant disciples, he revitalized his contemporary literature and revolutionized the value vision of his time. For those who were denied places for public worship he installed temples of harmony and purity. To those for whom education was denied he gave schools and exhorted them to free their spirits with the power of knowledge. For millions, social injustice perpetuated by tradition had remained an insurmountable barrier over centuries.

Narayana Guru provided them the motivation to stir and collectively wield power to legislate new laws that could successfully correct the diehard customs of the past. It was not by resorting to violence or pressure tactics that the Guru revolutionized the people but by offering his dignified example for them to see and follow. He was a sage on par with Buddha, Lao Tsu and Socrates. He was a persuasive teacher like Jesus and an upholder of social justice like Prophet Mohammed. As a philosopher his penetrating thought surpasses the climaxes of Descartes and Spinoza and amends the conclusions of Kent, Hegal and Marx. His integral vision excels Bergson’s study of the philosophical reductions of Edmund Husserl and Karl Jaspers. His mystical exaltations are similar to those of Blake and Rumi.

Narayana Guru’s Epistemology

In this epistemology, Narayana Guru is neither an idealist nor a materialist. His philosophy is unitive and holistic. Matter and spirit are relevant idea when one has to deal with the empirical world of things (perpetual) and the cognitive world of ideas (conceptual). There is no need to place one above the other. This world is not a random coalescence of chaotically flying molecules, nor is it the phantom imagination of a mischievous spirit. A person placed in this enormous setting can choose to play one’s history evolving or reading game of socio-political significance. He or she can vertically ascend from one’s individuated consciousness of ‘I’ to a transcendental reality of being one with all.
Narayana Guru’s theory of knowledge is wide and panoramic and he is no purist who will shout at any philosopher “no space-no space”. In Narayana Guru’s philosophical ‘commons’ there is a welcome and appropriate room for every philosopher, whether it is an extreme idealist like Emmanuel Kant or an extreme materialist like Karl Marx. Truth is many faceted, and it is not philosophical to patent any one vision.

To those who fanatically hold on to views such as ‘this alone’ or ‘that alone,’ Narayana Guru has a gentle admonition. He realized them that neither this nor that, nor the particular meaning speculated could be the ultimate way. It is more sensible to give up all problems of personal preferences whether positive or negative and allow the varieties of empirical transaction to parade as ever, the variants of the subjective to float along.
Guru’s Logic

Jesus said, ‘The Sabbath is for man and not man for the Sabbath.’ He cannot say exactly the same about logic, because logic does not alter its norms to suit our whims. Karl Marx put a good rejoinder; “The truth that is useless to man is no truth at all.” Narayana Guru thinks similarly about logic.

Logic is and should be the correct means to assemble facts and seek solutions. Missing links of information are likely to play tricks when coupled with conditioned likes and dislikes, our paranoia or our prejudiced anticipation’s of rewards. The Guru was not enamored with all the signs and squiggles of formal and symbolic logic.

To him perception carries the stamp of verity for transactional purposes, and perception is a psychologically generated phenomenon that is an amalgam of the essence of the things presented and the individuated consciousness to which the world is given. After perception the next reliable means to attain to truth is inference. The ground of truth in inference refers directly to the vertical essence of things. Yet specific horizontal aspect of anything can be unique or variant and for that reason detrimental to the precise assertion of truth. Narayana Guru assigns a high value to the testimony of comparison, as it implies the certitude of experimental proof and the fairly valid assessment made by knowledgeable persons.

Guru’s Ethical Teachings

The dynamic core of ethics is ‘sharing happiness with the other.’ What is unethical is obstructing dual sharing and even worse I inflicting conditions that are negatively oriented. Narayana Guru taught we should first be selfish in the big way of identifying with the true happiness one’s self. We do not deny to anyone any good value that we cherish. We do this by remaining mindful of the dialectical situation in which we are placed and being true to our counterpart. Making ourselves solely responsible, as we would do to our own self.

It was Jesus who said, ‘those who are not with me are against me, and those who are not against me are with me.’ In active or passive ways, people segregate even to the extent of apartheid camps of exclusive groups. Color, religions, language, nationality and food habits are all elements that separate person from person. The Guru did not see any rationale in curtailing the bounds of love. He wanted socializing to be put on the ground of common biologic fact rather than on whimsical prejudices. “Man is one kind, one religion and of one God”, he declared.
Narayana Guru’s Theory of Beauty

Beauty is the vision of the self-mirrored in the non-self. The closer the image is to the truthfulness of the self greater is the impact of beauty. The self is characteristically the existent, the subsistent and the ground of all values. In the scale of existence the eternal is polarized with the transient. As each suggests other, beauty is perceived as a dialectical interaction of opposites that cancel each other out. The pole star is beautiful and even so is the violet that blooms for a day. The beauty of subsistence makes the daily bread, the feeding mother, the bread winning father, the farm of abundance, the rain cloud and the guardians of the abundance. Beauty is affective; this gives the individuated self its dynamic link with the existential actuality of the given world. Obtaining the steady state of being established in the eternal equipoise is the state samatva or yoga. In pure art there is constant weaning of the senses from the agitating influx of the incoming stimuli and the directing of the spontaneous flow of invoked energy to a cosmic significance or to an intense humanization of inspirational aesthetic implosion. Narayana Guru describes this as the all-consuming flame of knowledge filling the conscientious self from the alpha to omega, which can be likened to the rising ten thousand orbs in the sky of consciousness. Such was a wonder Narayana Guru who lived in the worlds of human interest. It is only appropriate to think of him as universal Person.

46.Gurupaada Dashakam- by Mahakavi Kumaran Asan

ഗുരുപാദദശകം- മഹാകവി കുമാരന്‍ആശാന്‍
ഭൂതിയും നല്കുമേതോ
ണ്ടാക്കിയും നില്ക്കയാലോ
ഏതിന്നും മൂലമല്ലോഗുരുകൃപയതിനാല്‍
ഭുക്തിയും മുക്തിയും മേല്‍
സാധിപ്പാനോര്‍ത്തു നാരായണഗുരുചരണം
സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍!


ലോകേശന്‍ സൃഷ്ടിചെയ്യുന്നിഹ മുഹുരപി മാം
രക്ഷചെയ്യുന്നു വിഷ്ണു
ശ്രീകണ്ഠന്‍ സംഹരിക്കുന്നിവര്‍ മമ ചിരസം-
ശോകംചേര്‍ക്കുന്ന ജന്മാക്ഷയരുജകളശേഷം
കെടുക്കും കടാക്ഷം
തൂകും തുല്യംവെടിഞ്ഞുള്ളൊരു ഗുരുചരണം
സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍!


മാതാവെപ്പോല്‍ മനസ്സില്‍ക്കരുണ, ജനകനെ-
പ്പോലവേ ക്ഷേമചിന്താ,
ഭ്രാതാവെപ്പോലെയേന്തുന്നിതു ഹൃദിസഹജ-
സ്നേഹവും മോഹമെന്യേ,
വേദത്തെപ്പോലെയോതുന്നറിവു, നൃപതിയെ-
പ്പോലെ പാലിച്ചിടുന്നി-
ന്നേതല്ലോര്‍ത്താലെനിക്കെന്‍ ഗുരുപദമതിനെ-
സ്സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍.


തിണ്ണെന്നര്‍ത്ഥിക്കുമര്‍ത്ഥം ത്രിദശഗണമതി-
ന്നേകുവാന്‍ തക്കവണ്ണം
വിണ്ണോര്‍നാട്ടിന്‍ തരുക്കള്‍ക്കൊരു വിരുതെഴുമെ-
ന്നീവിധം കേള്‍വിയല്ലേ
മണ്ണില്‍ത്താന്‍ ഭുക്തിയും മുക്തിയുമരുളിടുമ-
കണ്ണിന്‍ കോണാര്‍ന്നു കാണും ഗുരുപദകമലം
സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍.


ധീമാന്നാചാരലോപം സുഭഗദൃഢശരീ-
രന്നു കാമാപവാദം
ശ്രീമാനില്‍ ശ്രീമദം ശിക്ഷിതനിലതനുദുര്‍-
ഈമട്ടോതുന്ന ദോഷം ചെറുതിഹ നിരാ-
ലംബമാക്കുന്നു പാര്‍ക്കില്‍
ഭൂമാനെന്‍ ദേശീകേന്ദ്രന്‍ പുനരിവയെ നിന-
ച്ചന്‍പില്‍ ഞാന്‍ കുമ്പിടുന്നേന്‍.


വാചാ ജ്ഞാനങ്ങള്‍ ഘോഷിച്ചിടുവൊരു വികടാ-
ത്മാക്കളും വേണ്ടതുണ്ടാം
വൈചക്ഷണ്യം വിശുദ്ധാചരനവിശദധീ-
ന്നാചാര്യന്‍ ദുര്‍ല്ലഭം മദ്ഗുരുസമനിദമോര്‍-
ത്തന്‍പൊടും കുമ്പിടുന്നേന്‍.


വേറല്ലോ വക്ത്രശോഭാ മമ ഗുരുവിനു വേ-
റിന്നു മന്ദസ്മിതാഭാ-
വേറാകാരങ്ങള്‍ വേറാസ്ഥിതിഗതിധൃതിഗാം-
വേറത്രേ ശിഷ്യവാത്സല്യവൂമിവയെ വിശേ-
ഷിച്ചു ചിന്തിച്ചു മോദാല്‍
സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍.


വിദാന്‍ വിദ്വജ്ജനങ്ങള്‍ക്കലസനലസരാ-
വൃദ്ധന്മാര്‍ക്കൊക്കെ വൃദ്ധന്‍ മഹുവിലസിതമായ്
ഹന്ത ബാലര്‍ക്കു ബാലന്‍
സദ്യോഗീന്ദ്രര്‍ക്കു യോഗീശ്വരനഥ സകല-
ജ്ഞാനിനാം ജ്ഞാനിവര്യന്‍
സിദ്ധിച്ചല്ലോയെനിക്കിങ്ങനെ ഗുരുവരനെ-
ന്നന്‍പില്‍ ഞാന്‍ കുമ്പിടുന്നേന്‍.


ചെന്താര്‍ മങ്ങും മുഖം ചേതന നയനയുഗം
ചാരുനെറ്റിത്തടം നല്‍-
പ്പൊന്താരിന്‍‌കാന്തി പൊങ്ങും പ്രഭയൊടു പുരുരോ-
മാളിയാളുന്ന പൂമെയ്
ചന്തത്തില്‍ ജാനുവോളം വരുമരിയ കരാ-
ബീജങ്ങളും തുംഗഭക്ത്യാ
സന്തതം ഞാന്‍ തൊഴുന്നേന്‍


വിക്ഷേപം വൃത്തിയെല്ലാം വിഷയവഴിയിള-
യ്ക്കുമ്പോള്‍ വല്ലാതെ വാടും
മോക്ഷാര്‍ത്ഥിക്കാശ്വസിപ്പാന്‍ ഹൃദി ശുകഭഗവത്-
പാദരിത്യാദി തോന്നും
പക്ഷേ, സന്ദേഹവും തോന്നിടുമപരിചയം-
കൊണ്ടു പര്യാപ്തമായ് മേ
സാക്ഷാലുണ്ടിന്നു നാരായണഗുരുപദമെ-
ന്നന്‍പില്‍ ഞാന്‍ കുമ്പിടുന്നേന്‍.

45.GURUSTHAVAM-- video sung by Dr.C.K.Revamma

44.GURUSTHAVAM- by Mahakavi Kumaran Aasan

- by Mahakavi Kumaranasan

Naryanamurthe! Gurunarayana murthe!
Naryana murthe! Paramacharya : Namasthe

Aarayukilandhathwamozhichaathimahassin -
Neram vazhikattum guruvallo paradaivam
Aaradhyanathorthidukil njhangalkkavidunnaam
Narayanamurthe! Gurunarayanamurthe!

Anpaarnnavarundo paravinjhanikalundo
Munpayi ninachokkeyilum njhangal bhajippu
Ninpaavanapaadam Gurunarayanamurthe.

Annyarku gunam chaivathinayussuvapussum
Dhanyathwamodangathma thapassum balichaivoo
Vanyashrama melunnavarum Shreegurumurthe

Vaadangal chevikkondumathapporukal kandum
Modasthithanayangu vasippoomalapole
Vedaagamasaarangalirinjhangoruvan thaan
Bhedaathikal kaivittu jaippoo gurumurthe

Mohaakularam njhangaleyangodeyadippoo
Snehathmakamaam paasamathil kettiyizhappo
Aaha ! bahulaksham janamangethirunaama-
Vyaaharabalathaal vijayipoo gurumurthe.

Ange thiruvulloriyoranpin viniyogam
Njhangalkku shubham cherthidumeejhangade yogam
Yengum janachithnangalinakki prassarippoo
Mangaathe chiram ninpukalpol Shree gurumurthe.


ശ്രീനാരായണഗുരുസ്വാമിയുടെ ഷഷ്ടിപൂര്‍ത്തിക്ക് എഴുതിയത്)

നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ, ഗുരു നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ
നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ, പരമാചാര്യ നമസ്തേ

നേരാംവഴി കാട്ടും ഗുരുവല്ലോ പരദൈവം;
ആരാദ്ധ്യനതോര്‍ത്തിടുകില്‍ ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്കവിടുന്നാം
നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ, ഗുരു നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

അമ്പാര്‍ന്നവരുണ്ടോ പരവിജ്ഞാനികളുണ്ടോ
മുമ്പായി നിനച്ചൊക്കെയിലും ഞങ്ങള്‍ ഭജിപ്പൂ
നിമ്പാവനപാദം ഗുരു നാരായണമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

അന്യര്‍ക്കു ഗുണം ചെയ്‌വതിനായുസ്സു വപുസ്സും
ധന്യത്വമൊടങ്ങാത്മതപസ്സും ബലിചെയ്‌വൂ;
സന്യാസികളില്ലിങ്ങനെ യില്ലില്ലമിയന്നോര്‍
വന്യാശ്രമമേലുന്നവരും ശ്രീഗുരുമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

വാദങ്ങള്‍ ചെവിക്കൊണ്ടു മതപ്പോരുകള്‍ കണ്ടും
മോദസ്ഥിരനായങ്ങു വസിപ്പൂ മലപോലെ
ഭേദാരികള്‍ കൈവിട്ടു ജയിപ്പൂ ഗുരുമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

മോഹാകുലരാം ഞങ്ങളെയങ്ങേടെയടിപ്പൂ
സ്നേഹാത്മകമാം പാശമതില്‍ കെട്ടിയിഴപ്പൂ;
ആഹാ ബഹുലക്ഷം ജനമങ്ങേത്തിരുനാമ-
വ്യാഹാരബലത്താല്‍ വിജയിപ്പൂ ഗുരുമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

അങ്ങേത്തിരുവുള്ളൂറിയൊരമ്പില്‍ വിനിയോഗം
ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്കു ശുഭം ചേര്‍ത്തിടുമീ ഞങ്ങടെ “യോഗം.”
എങ്ങും ജനചിത്തങ്ങളിണക്കി പ്രസരിപ്പൂ
മങ്ങാതെ ചിരം നിന്‍ പുകള്‍പോല്‍ ശ്രീഗുരുമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

തമ്പോലെയുറുമ്പാദിയെയും പാര്‍ത്തിടുമങ്ങേ-
ക്കമ്പോടുലകര്‍ത്ഥിപ്പൂ ചിരായുസ്സു ദയാബ്ധേ
മുമ്പോല്‍ സുഖമായ് മേന്മതൊടുന്നോര്‍ക്കരുളും കാല്‍
തുമ്പോടിനിയും വാഴ്ക ശതാബ്ദം ഗുരുമൂര്‍ത്തേ.

43.Kumaran Asan and Sree Narayana Guru

N. Kumaran Asan (1873-1924) also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Asan, (the prefix Mahakavi awarded by Madras University in the year 1922 means "great poet" and the suffix Asan meaning scholar or teacher) was one of the triumvirate poets of Kerala. He was also a philosopher and a social reformer. More than that he was one of honoured disciple of Sree Narayana Guru.

Kumaran Asan initiated a revolution in Malayalam poetry in the first quarter of the 20th century, transforming it from the metaphysical to the lyrical. Deep moral and spiritual commitment is evident in Asan's poetry. His works are an eloquent testimony of poetic concentration and dramatic contextualization.

Asan was born in a merchant family belonging to the Ezhava community in April 1873 in Kayikkara village, Chirayinkeezhu taluk, north of Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, south India. Named Kumaru He was the second son in a family of nine children. His father, Narayanan Perungudi, was well versed in Malayalam and Tamil. Asan inherited his taste for Kathakali and classical music. Kumaru trained in mathematics and Sanskrit for which he had a passion. Even though through his father's efforts, he got a job as a primary school teacher and an accountant to a wholesaler at the age of 14, he quit the job two years later to pursue higher studies in Sanskrit. He undertook a studentship in poetry under Manamboor Govindan Asan. He wished to learn Yoga and Tantra and worked as an apprentice in a Muruga temple at Vakkom. It is said that the Muse of Poetry blessed him during this time. He composed a few devotional songs for the benefit of regular worshippers at this temple. In 1917 Asan married Bhanumathi Amma of Tharkauduyil family to which belonged Rao Bahadur Belayudhan and Dr.P.Palpu, prominent members of the community. Kumaran Asan had two sons
Kumaran was dogged by ill-health all through his early life. When he was eighteen, Sree Narayana Guru visited his house at the request of his father. Kumaran was bedridden at that time. The great saint suggested that Kumaran should stay with him and become his disciple. The little boy found the invitation irresistible. Thus began a new phase of life for the young lad.

Kumaran’s meeting with Sree Narayana Guru can be compared to the meeting of Naren with Sri Ramakrishna. While Naren became a full fledged Swami, Kumaran continued as a lay disciple of Narayana Guru and made substantial contributions in the fields of poetry, literature and social renaissance.

Swamy took the fledgling devotee under his care and in 1895 Kumaran was sent to Bangalore for 3 years for higher studies in Sanskrit, at the Sree Chamarajendra Sanskrit College. He specialized in Tarka sastra. He could not take the final exam. Leaving Bangalore he came to Madras and after a brief stay, left for Calcutta to join the Sanskrit College. His teacher was Mahamahopadhyaya Kamakhya Nath who encouraged the poetic gift of his student and prophesised that he would one day become a famous poet.
Gurudev's aim was to create an organization which would bring together people who wanted to be such good men. Such an organization was open to all regardless of caste or religion. In Gurudev's vision. Such an organization, open to all, would ridicule the caste differences, blunt the harshness of class conflict and gradually demolish the caste barriers. It was with the aim of fostering an awareness and unity and to spread the ideals that Gurudev decided to launch Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam. Thus was established SNDP with Gurudev's blessings. The Yogam came into being on January 7, 1903 ( 1078). Kumaran Ashan was the Yogam's first General Secretary.

Some of the earlier works of the poet were Subramanya Sathakam and Sankara Sathakam, wherein Asan voiced his devotional aspirations. His short poem Veena Poovu (fallen flower) is a literary classic. It paved the way for a new movement in Malayalam literature. His elegy Prarodanam mourns the death of his contemporary and friend A. R. Rajaraja Varma, the famous grammarian. His Khanda Kavyas (poems) like Nalini, Leela, Karuna and Chandaalabhikshuki won critical acclaim as well as popularity. In Chintaavishtayaaya Seetha (Seetha Lost in Thought) he displays his poetic artistry, while in Duravastha, he patiently and skillfully tears down the barriers created by feudalism, orthodoxy and casteism and consummates the dictum of the Guru, “One Caste, One Religion, One God for man”.

He wrote the epic poem Buddha Charitha for which he got inspiration from Edwin Arnold’s Light of Asia. While in Duravastha, he revealed his revolutionary zeal for fighting caste distinctions; a few other poetic works had a distinct Hindu/Buddhist slant.

He also wrote "The Meditations of Sita".(Chinthavishtyaya sita)

The Mahakavi lived for fifty years. His life was tragically cut short by a boat accident in January 1924 while travelling from Kollam to Alappuzha to attend a function as the chief guest. The boat capsized at Pallana. But the trail he blazed in the literary and social firmament of Kerala is an inspiration for any student of contemporary history.

A video on Mahakavi Kumaran Asan